Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have quale down onesto us, none has been found durante association with his inscribed name

Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have quale down onesto us, none has been found durante association with his inscribed name

For this reason, Caligula’s iconographic hairstyle, especially with regard esatto the arrangement of the fringe of locks over the forehead, is of great importance sopra identifying his portraits. Although the configuration of locks is by in nessun caso means identical in all respects con images of a given portrait type, hairstyles were generally far easier puro carve durante marble than facial features (even by less talented sculptors), and they therefore provide an important index for identifying portraits.

Consequently, the only reliable images for determining his physical appearance are those on labeled coins, which provide us with either his right or left profile

My focus here is on the “image” of Caligula as transmitted esatto us by not only the ancient visual evidence, consisting largely of sculpture and coinage, but also the literary sources representing the views of his detractors. These numismatic profile views can be compared with sculptural portraits-in-the-ripresa puro establish the identity of the imperial personage represented. Though representations of Caligula mediante the form of portraits must also certainly have existed, none has survived from antiquity.

Whether numismatic or sculptural, the extant portraits of Caligula and other members of the imperial family ultimately reflect, to some degree, verso three-dimensional “Urbild,” or prototype, for which the individual presumably sat. These prototypes, which were probably first produced con clay, per niente longer survive, but they would have been used for argilla or plaster models that would presumably have been made available by imperial agents for distribution throughout the Completare, both through military channels and inizio the “art market.” However, there is mai surviving material evidence for these putative plaster or terracotta casts of Roman portraits. Other types of models may also have been distributed via the art market. One possibility not considered sopra the past is the dissemination of painted wax face-mask models, though we have mai direct evidence for this either.

Instead, provincial imperial portraits often conformed esatto local, traditional concepts of leadership, suggesting that the central government of Rome only made models available for distribution but did not control how closely they were followed. Local accommodant pressures would nevertheless have assured that the imperial image was both dignified and appropriately displayed. Mediante other areas of production, there is reason preciso believe that the central government, through its agents, did play per direct role mediante disseminating imperial images, including determining how they would look (as mediante the case of state coinage, which was under the direct control of the Princeps). The involvement of imperial agents would likely have also been necessary, for example, when there was verso need preciso make imperial images available rather quickly esatto the military throughout the Empire. These images were undoubtedly required con military camps in administering the loyalty oath (sacramentum) esatto a new Princeps and/or, when necessary, sicuro his officially designated successor.

Many of the portraits produced per the provinces for civic contexts and municipal or colonial worship did not closely follow the imagery of Roman state models, which reflected the official ideology of the principate

The imperial image before which soldiers usually swore their oath — at least initially sicuro verso new Princeps — probably took the form of per small bronze imago clipeata (“shield portrait”) or some sort of small bust applique like that attached onesto the military canone (signum) carried durante battle, or it may even have been verso small bust affixed to the apice of verso plain pole as verso finial. Such standards and poles were also used durante parades and kept per the shrine (sacellum or aedes) of a military camp along with portrait statues of the Princeps (and his designated successor), images of the gods, and other military insignia. Thus, represented on the Severan Arch of the Argentarii con Rome is verso Praetorian canone with attached small busts of Septimius Severus (below) and his young bruissement and designated successor Caracalla (above)(fig. 9a-b).